Lecture 15: Final Topics on CAPM


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1 Lecture 15: Final Topics on CAPM Final topics on estimating and using beta: the market risk premium putting it all together Final topics on CAPM: Examples of firm and market risk Shorting Stocks and other assets Reading: Same as for Lecture 14 M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
2 The Market Risk Premium (BM pp ) We now have an estimate of 1.24 for β IBM. To calculate the discount rate, we need the market risk premium, (r m r f ). Historically, from , stocks returned an average of 9.2% per year more than TBills. Up to mid1990 s, the average was about 8.5%. Could recent high returns indicate a drop in the risk premium? M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
3 Putting it all together Suppose we decide on (r m r f ) = 8.5%. To calculate the discount rate, we now plug numbers into the CAPM: r IBM = r f + β IBM (r m r f ) = 5.8% x 8.5% = 16.34% Note: Do sensitivity analysis! Risk free rate appropriate to period, e.g. 5yr Treasury rate M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
4 Risk as Evaluated In the CAPM: Two Types of Garbage Risk can be thought of as garbage: People are paid to take it away, i.e. to hold it. Here we have two types of garbage. Type 1 (Biodegradable): Costs nothing to eliminate. Type 2 (Toxic Chemicals): Cannot be eliminated. Question: What are the equilibrium prices for the removal of type 1 and type 2 garbage? Answer: P 1 = 0 (type 1 garbage costs nothing to remove) P 2 > 0 ( type 2 garbage is costly to remove) M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
5 Two Types of Risk Type 1 (Firm specific, or idiosyncratic, risk): Diversification removes firm specific risk from portfolios at no cost. No extra return is earned by holding firm specific risk. Type 2 (Market risk): Cannot be eliminated from all portfolios. Thus investors must be paid extra return to hold risk How much? CAPM: ( r r ) = β ( r r ) i f i m f M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
6 Example: Firmspecific vs. Market risk (reader, p. 114) You are to purchase 100 shares of stock. All stocks sells for the same price, so pick any firms. Firmspecific risk: Separate coin flip for each firm: If firm gets heads, it s worth 1; if firm gets tails, it s worth 0. What benefit do you expect from diversification? Market risk: Single coin flip for all firms: If heads, every share in the economy is worth 1; if tails, 0. So this example has market risk, but no firmspecific risk What benefits do you expect from diversification? M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
7 Negative Portfolio Weights In all our formulae, there are no restrictions on the sign or size of any of the w i. Except, of course, that they must add up to one. Negative weight on riskfree asset = borrowing. If you use the borrowed funds to purchase additional stock (i.e. more value than your wealth), this is called buying the stock on margin. A negative weight on a risky asset is called shorting the security. M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
8 Example: Shorting a Security On January 1, 1995 you short 100 shares of HAL Inc. What have you done? That morning you call your broker, find that HAL Inc. is selling for $50 a share, and place your order. Since you do not own the stock, the broker must lend you 100 shares of HAL Inc. You sell the stock and collect $5,000. Selling borrowed stock is not like selling the car you borrowed from a friend You must repurchase the stock at a later date so that you can return the borrowed shares. M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
9 Shorting example: Transaction details With the $5,000, you can purchase securities. E.g. government bonds, yielding 10% for the year. You must leave these with the broker as collateral (to guarantee that you will return the stock at some future date). If the stock price rises, broker will request additional collateral What if the stock pays a dividend of $1/share on Dec 31? The original owner wants the dividend. So does the new owner (to whom you just sold the stock) The firm only pays the dividend once. You must send broker a $100 check for the amount of the dividend M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
10 Unwinding the Short Position On January 1, 1996 you "unwind" the position: First, you sell the bonds, say for $5,500 in cash. Second, you repurchase the stock in the market. If HAL share price is $51, the 100 shares cost you $5,100. Third, you return the shares to the broker. The net result was a profit of 5,500 5, = $300 You made a profit because the return on the stock was lower than the return on the bonds. Going short is a bet against a particular stock (or at least a bet it will not go rise by much). M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
11 Shorting as a negative investment Compare the cash flows from shorting HAL vs. those from buying ( going long ) 100 shares: Initial purchase/sale Dividend Unwinding Buying 100 shares $5,000 +$100 +$5,100 Shorting 100 shares +$5,000 $100 $5,100 Shorting 100 shares is exactly equivalent to buying 100 shares. M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
12 Example 2: Palm vs. 3COM At the beginning of March, 2000, 3COM (symbol COMS) spun off part of Palm, Inc. (symbol PALM), retaining the rest. On July 27, 2000, 3COM distributed the remaining shares in PALM to its shareholders. For each 3COM share owned, you received shares of PALM. M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
13 Palm vs. 3COM On the morning of March 29, I was quoted the following prices by Charles Schwab: COMS: $67 3/16 = $67.19 PALM: $55 3/16 = $55.19 Take the price of PALM, and multiply it by 1.5: 1.5 x = $82.78 What s odd? This is $15.59 more than the price of one 3COM share A 3COM share is equivalent to» 1.5 PALM shares» PLUS the rest of 3COM s operations What to do about it? ARBITRAGE: Buy 3COM; short (1.5x as many) PALM. M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
14 Palm vs. 3COM 6,000 4,000 2, ,0004,0006,0008,00010,00012,00014,000 3/2/2000 4/2/2000 5/2/2000 6/2/2000 7/2/2000 8/2/2000 9/2/ /2/ Portfolio 80 3COM PALM * Rest of PALM distributed I tried to form portfolio here 0 M. Spiegel and R. Stanton,
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